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Membrane filtration
Membrane filtration
Membrane filtration entails the removal of substances from water by means of particle size and pressure difference. The requisite separation can be achieved by applying a membrane (of semipermeable material) with a specified pore size: membraan
  • microfiltration (MF): pore size of 10 to 0.05 mm (required pressure 0.1 – 2.5 bar) – only removes undissolved particles;
  • ultrafiltration (UF) : pore size of 0.05 mm to 2 nm (required pressure 0.5 – 2.5 bar) – removes both undissolved particles and substances with high molecular weights;
  • nanofiltration (NF): pore size < 2 nm (required pressure 5 - 15 bar) – removes microcontaminants and polyvalent ions (dissolved substances);
  • reverse osmosis (RO, hyperfiltration): pore size < 2 nm (required pressure 10 - 70 bar) - removes microcontaminants and both polyvalent and simple ions (dissolved substances).
 
Membranes are used for both the treatment of groundwater and surface water. The following aspects must be taken into account in the design and for the optimum operation of an installation:
  • the correct choice of membranes in relation to the quality of the source and the required quality (guarantee);
  • the possibility that a pre and post-treatment may be necessary;
  • methods for cleaning the membranes (backwash frequency, chemicals, etc.);
  • •the application of chemicals to prevent fouling (including biofouling), etc.
Examples:
IOI Loders Croklaan 2x RO 6 m3/h on one skid, expandable to 2x 8 m3/h RO_6m3h_op_skid
Stork Prints 15 m3/h dubble pass reverse osmosis RO_15m3h_dubbel_pass